'Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences'
By Galileo Galilei (Author), Henry Crew (Translator), Alfonso De Salvio (Translator)
This is Galileo's final work, and the most mature explication of his scientific philosophies. Presented as a dialogue among three imaginary men who represent Galileo himself at different stages of his thought processes, it explores the two sciences, at their most basic, Galileo pioneered: engineering and the laws of motion, the latter of which anticipates Isaac Newton by half a century. This classic 1914 translation is by American physicist Henry Crew (1859-1953) and Italian scholar of the Italian language Alfonso De Salvio (1873-1938), both of whom were serving on the faculty of Northwestern University when they produced his work. Galileo himself could not publish this 1638 work throughout much of Europe after his conviction by the Inquisition, but this volume makes him readily accessible to lay scientists today.
Galileo Galilei was a Tuscan (Italian) physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science." The motion of uniformly accelerated objects, taught in nearly all high school and introductory college physics courses, was studied by Galileo as the subject of kinematics. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, named the Galilean moons in his honour, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, improving compass design.
Galileo's championing of Copernicanism was controversial within his lifetime. The geocentric view had been dominant since the time of Aristotle, and the controversy engendered by Galileo's presentation of heliocentrism as proven fact resulted in the Catholic Church's prohibiting its advocacy as empirically proven fact, because it was not empirically proven at the time and was contrary to the literal meaning of Scripture. Galileo was eventually forced to recant his heliocentrism and spent the last years of his life under house arrest on orders of the Roman Inquisition.